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Saturday, July 12, 2014

Textile Raw Materials Overview | Textile Fiber Used as Basic Raw Materials in Textile Processing

http://textileaid.blogspot.com/2013/06/cotton-fiber-crossection-of-cotton.htmlTotal textile processes involve basic four steps where fully fashion wear or garment making is the final process. Each and every step of textile processing depends on others and fiber is basically the initial raw materials of whole process of textile manufacturing. Fibers are being categorized into three main categories. The fibers come from nature directly are known as natural fiber, such as cotton, jute, hemp, wool, silk etc. The fibers come from nature but little bit modified with chemical are known as semi-synthetic or regenerated fibers, such as viscose rayon, acetate rayon etc. Finally the fibers we get from chemical substances where no natural substances are presented and artificial materials are the main component of these fibers are commonly known as man made or artificial or synthetic fibers.

Among these three types of fibers there are some sub categories according to their fiber forming substances or getting sources.

Now we will see the classification of these textile fibers and their derivatives with relevant examples.

Basically classified into three main categories, they are


Natural Fibers:
Those are completely get from nature without any chemical modification known as natural fiber. Uses of natural fibers in this world is much than synthetic fiber because of it's comfort and availability. Only cotton fiber covers almost 56% of total demand of textile sector. Now a days synthetic fibers are used by blending with natural fibers to reduce cost and extra use of natural fibers. Cotton and polyester blending is most popular among all of them. Depending of fiber source natural fibers are also classified as below.

Vegetable Fiber
Cotton, Jute, Hemp, Kenaf, Flax/linen, Ramie, Sisal, Abaca, Coir etc.

Protein Fiber
Wool, Silk, Camel hair,  Rabbit hair, Mohair, Kashmere, Angora, Alpaca, kesin etc.

Mineral Fiber
Carbon, glass, asbestos


Regenerated Fibers:
Those fibers we get from natural source but finally produce yarn incorporating with some chemical modification that fibers are called regenerated fibers. Such as viscose rayon is produced from bamboo pulp and cotton linters. These fibers contain many properties of natural fibers that's why they can be used as alternative of them.

Viscose Rayon, Acetate Rayon, Cupramonium Rayon.

Synthetic Fibers: 
Those fibers completely produce with chemical substances and make with desired shape and size. These fibers we get as complete yarn form. After using synthetic fibers huge pressure has been reduced over natural fibers and their availability reduces time and costs of getting required quality yarn. Durability, strength, chemical and insect resistance as well as color variation is much better than that of natural fibers.

Polyester, Polyolefin, Acrylic, Modcrylic, Spandex, Nylon, Acetate, Polythene etc.
 
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